Possible Scarless

Adverse effects

Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Ecstasy was ranked 16th in addictiveness, harmfulness, and social harm.[26]

MDMA use has been shown to produce brain lesions, a form of brain damage, in the serotonergic neural pathways of humans and other animals.[2][4] In addition, long-term exposure to MDMA in humans has been shown to produce marked neurotoxicity in serotonergic axon terminals.[19][25][27] Neurotoxic damage to axon terminals has been shown to persist for more than two years.[27] Brain temperature during MDMA use is positively correlated with MDMA-induced neurotoxicity in animals.[19] Adverse neuroplastic changes to brain microvasculature and white matter also seem to occur in humans using low doses of MDMA.[19] Reduced gray matter density in certain brain structures has also been noted in human MDMA users.[19] In addition, MDMA has immunosuppressive effects in the periphery, but pro-inflammatory effects in the central nervous system.[28] Babies of mothers who used MDMA during pregnancy exhibit impaired motor function at 4 months of age, which may reflect either a delay in development or a persistent neurological deficit.[16][29]

MDMA also produces persistent cognitive impairments in human users.[1][15][16] Impairments in multiple aspects of cognition, including memory, visual processing, and sleep have been noted in humans;[15][16] the magnitude of these impairments is correlated with lifetime ecstasy or MDMA usage.[1][15][16] Memory is significantly impacted by ecstasy use, which is associated with marked impairments in all forms of memory (e.g., long-term, short-term, working).[15][16]

The most serious short-term physical health risks of MDMA are hyperthermia and dehydration.[25][30] Cases of life-threatening hyponatremia (excessively low sodium concentration in the blood) have developed in MDMA users attempting to prevent dehydration by consuming excessive amounts of water without replenishing electrolytes.[25][30][31]



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